Last time we looked at Aquinas’ thoughts on law and morality, as well as sex. Today, we’re going to look at War, including Jus ad Bellum and Jus ad Bello, and how Aquinas looked at women, as well as what he night have though of some of today’s controversial issues.
In this chapter, Renick discusses Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello, and double effect. He notes that in 1991, before Gulf War I, George Bush (41) stated the reasons for going to war against Iraq (which at the time had occupied Kuwait). These reasons described why he felt it was a just war. For it to be so, it needed a just cause, to be declared by a legitimate authority, to be a last resort, and to have a just intent. Bush listed reasons why each of these criteria was satisfied.
A war, while seemingly as far from moral as it can get, can be just according to international law, if it follows the rules Bush cited in his speech. If this is thought to be an oxymoron, it can be compared to the actions the Nazis in World War II, or perhaps the Khmer Rouge, among others. No, “morality,” Renick writes, “places important restraints on actions even during the heat of combat.” Aquinas played a major role in codifying this.
Christians have had to reason about just war since the 4th Century, when they went from being a persecuted group to the official religion of the Roman Empire. Before that, they considered themselves pacifists. After, they asked themselves if standing by while innocent people were slaughtered was in line with loving your neighbor – obviously, history shows they decided that intervening was the right thing to do.
Augustine was one of the first to give an affirmative and “taught that it was acceptable, even mandatory, for Christians to use violence – if they did so in a limited fashion and in order to protect the innocent.” As a matter of fact it was Augustine that first coined the term “Just war”. Eight centuries later, Aquinas developed this concept to the form we see today.
He deals first with Jus ad bellum – Latin for “right or justice (at the time of) war.” This describes the “criteria that must be met before one can rightfully go to war.” There are three, all of which must be met in order to begin hostilities:
Next, he dealt with jus in bello, or “right/justice in war” – what you can do during conflicts. It is here that Aquinas introduces the concept of “double effect”. Renick writes, “Double effect is a moral concept that has found its way into our contemporary civil and criminal legal codes, has emerged as a cornerstone of medical ethics, and has become a sticking point in the modern abortion debate. It also establishes the basic standard for determining how one must treat noncombatants in times of war.”
Writes Aquinas: “Nothing hinders one act from having two effects.” One effect can be good and the other bad – what does one do in this situation? A simple example in going to the dentist. To fix your bad tooth she must cause you pain in the short term. A bigger example is saving the baby or saving the pregnant mother, or bombing a chemical factory next to a school.
Historically, there are Christians that followed the principle of do no harm. This Aquinas found to be impractical – consider the dentist case. If she does no harm and refuses to pull your tooth, you will end up worse off than if she in the short term causes you pain. Aquinas then says, if one effect is intended “while the other is beside the intention…Moral acts take their species according to what is intended, and not according to what is beside the intention, since this is accidental.” The dentist intends good – fixing your tooth – and not evil (the pain of the drilling). However, if she is sadistic and causes you pain on purpose, then her intent is wrong, and the act is wrong. The result does not justify the intent. This can also be seen in our modern concept of accidental manslaughter – your intent was not to kill anyone, versus 1st degree murder, where your intent certainly was to kill someone.
This is also applied to jus in bello – soldiers should never intend to kill civilians or innocents. They may die by accident, but this is not the same as targeting them. The example of the munitions factory by the school shows that if you bomb the factory and the school is destroyed, your intent was to stop the enemiy’s war production, not to kill children. This is euphemistically termed collateral damage. However, if you bomb the school to demoralize the enemy, your intent is wrong.
But, there is another dimension to double effect – the good effect must outweigh the accidental effect. Aquinas: “And yet, proceeding from a good intention, an act may be rendered unlawful, if it be out of proportion to the end.” If you kill hundreds of schoolchildren just to take out an enemy tank, for example, your intent was good, but the bad side was way out of proportion to what you achieved. So, you must ask:
The answer to both must be yes.
Catholics (macengr – and most of the rest of us) see abortion as not meeting the standards of the double effect philosophy. The end is evil – an innocent person dies, and the intent is evil – the mother doesn’t want to bear the child. Renick then attempts to justify a certain case of abortion using Aquinas’s arguments.
This case is when the mother’s life is threatened, for example when the egg implants in the fallopian tube. He feels that Aquinas would have said that it is morally permissible to remove the baby. The good end is saving the mother’s life; the bad end is that the baby dies. But here, says Renick, the intent is good – to save the mother’s life, and not to kill the baby. The death of the baby, per the discussion above, is accidental, not intentional, and who knows, by some miracle the baby could live…Also, if nothing is done, both the mother and baby die, and if you remove the baby, only one dies, so the result is better than choosing not to do anything at all (the result is proportionate to the harm done). Thus, Aquinas, Renick thinks, would “approve” of this abortion.
(macengr – I totally do not agree with this argument, especially because Renick uses zygote instead of baby to make his argument more convincing to the reader.)
So Aquinas, Renick thinks, is very much a modern thinker and was ahead of his time. But there is always a catch, and Renick points out that Aquinas’ view on women were very much a product of the times, and illustrates, to Renick, a drawback of the natural law approach.
Here, Aquinas felt that women are men’s helpers by nature, and that their primary usefulness is that of childbearing. He writes, “It was necessary for woman to be made as a helper to man; not, indeed, helpmate in other works, as some say, since man can be more efficiently helped by another man in other works; but as a helper in generation.” Men are therefore more useful when it comes to intellectual conversation or building things, and women are bad at these by nature. Women, Renick claims that Aquinas says, are a pale imitation of a man. Although both genders are needed to reproduce – here Renick quotes Aquinas again: “man is yet further ordered to a still nobler vital action, and that is intellectual operation.”
Thus, Aquinas says, there is a natural hierarchy between men and women, and the male should always be in charge. He writes, “For good order would have been wanting if some were not governed by others wiser than themselves. So by such a kind of subjection woman is naturally subject to man, because in man the discretion of reason predominates.” This inequality between men and women was the reason for Eve’s sin, not the result. Aquinas is arguing that the essence of woman is to be subject to man – it’s part of God’s plan. The sin in the garden was not only humans disobeying God’s command not to eat the fruit, but also of woman usurping the man’s authority.
Women are also, Aquinas says, only the container that human life is born in and do not contribute to their characteristics (no genetic material from the mother). Aquinas’s views on women would go on to become very influential; although they were really a reflection of his times. However, that men were superior to women was seen, after Aquinas, as a cornerstone of the natural law and science and it was felt to be a rational fact, even apart from the religious context.
So, Renick says, we must be careful when we use natural law, because there is a “need to distinguish between what is and what should be.” Aquinas lived in a monastery and avoided women and had little experience with them throughout his life, spending his time in primarily male environments from the time he was five years old. At the time he lived (the 1200s) women were seen as inferior, were subject to men, and were rarely educated. Of course, Renick says, Aquinas would think this was the natural order of things.
However, Renick says, “using the natural law demands that we do more than report on the way things are.” Just because murder occurs all the time – and scientists believes violence may have a genetic component – doesn’t mean it is natural. “What is is not always what should be.” (macengr – normative vs. positive). So just because women were subject to men at the time, doesn’t mean they were supposed to be that way. Renick feels that “Aquinas should have known better.” Still, this is a common mistake and it is very difficult to know the difference. Thus we must be very careful in thinking about it.
One can, Renick writes, use the natural law approach “to overcome the shackles of tradition…Aquinas’s theories can be the source of liberating justice. They allow one to say, ‘Sure, things have always been done this way, but nature (and God) demand that we do otherwise.'” And often Aquinas did use natural law to prove this and make “great strides in human justice.” But the danger is this: “Rather than catching a glimpse of the ways of God and nature, we may be holding a mirror up to ourselves. We may be confusing what is natural for what is familiar and comfortable” – and the latter may be unjust.
That’s enough for today. See you next time!
Last time we looked at Aquinas’ explanation of the problem of evil, Free Will, and Metaphysics. Continuing on, today we’ll see his thoughts on law and morality, as well as… sex (eek!).
Chapter 5: Law and Morality
“Men can fashion patterns of thought, but God himself arranged the natural order.“–Aquinas
As noted, God has a plan for everything – every single thing – in creation. Aquinas wrote, “The whole community of the Universe is governed by divine reason.” This plan, the ends that all things are created for, Aquinas calls “the eternal law.” This definition contains not only the moral law (the 10 commandments, etc.) but the physical law as well (physics, thermodynamics, and so on) as well as others. Only God can know the whole of the eternal law. A law is “only binding on an entity when the law is made known to that object.” Aquinas defines the portion of the eternal law that can be known by reason (and is binding on humans) as the “natural law.”
We can’t know the rest of the eternal law (the non-natural part) so there is no point in spending time on it. It is believed that God bestows this knowledge on blessed humans when they die – the beatific vision – but this is by revelation and not by reason. The natural law, however, is something we can know and should work to uncover, such as through science and through the moral law (for example, by theologians and philosophers). We must discover the essence of morality. Aquinas notes that “since God is the source of the essence of all things, one morally must pursue those actions that promote and avoid those actions that oppose an entity’s essence.” Examples are destroying an animals habitat so it cannot pursue its place in God’s plan or refusing to allow others to eat properly. “The moral good becomes, quite simply, that which is in accord with the order created by God (and hence in accord with reason); the moral evil becomes that which opposes this order.”
Aquinas notes that yes, moral truths are in the Bible – but one can also find these moral truths by using reason. “If one, by means of reason, taps into and conforms to the moral law of God, one is morally in the right. If one acts contrary to reason and hence against the natural law of God, one is morally wrong.”
To find the moral good, both intellect and reason are needed. Intellect, “the intuitive faculty drawn to non-empirical truths, discovers the proper end in a given situation.” It establishes first principles like good should be done and evil avoided (In math, the axioms). Reason tells us how to get to that proper end by using practical experiences. For example, looking at lying and seeing it is harmful, you can see that not lying leads to doing good and avoiding evil.
Aquinas uses the example of community. “Human beings only fully flourish when they live in community and…such flourishing is a good thing that should be pursued.” Both reason and intellect prove this conclusion – intellect notes that interacting with others leads to a better life than just being a hermit, and reason finds the means – treat others well, don’t be a jerk, etc. the fact that this method seems like something we always do is evidence of how influential Aquinas was on Western tradition. Aquinas also notes that the Bible is flawless and will never be contradicted by reason.
Aquinas is an optimist about human nature – we are programmed to seek the good, and we have reason and intellect to help us find it. This is contrary to Augustine and many Christians today, who feel that we are corrupt and will always pursue sin. Aquinas, though, says that even though “original sin corrupts our once pure reason so that at times we choose the wrong means to the good…the good is still the thing we seek.” Even bad people want peace and security, they just do bad things to get them. “That humans are good, that they can usually be trusted, and the ability to find the truth are all ideas put forth by Aquinas that would later become hallmarks of the Enlightenment.”
Another important consequence of this argument is that it provides a “common basis” for everyone to discuss moral issues. The Bible has no meaning to atheists, Jews, Muslims, and so on. Aquinas writes, “It follows therefore that natural law in its first common principles is the same among all men, both as to validity and recognition. It is “written on the hearts” of all people and is a way for everyone to agree on ethics no matter what their religion or belief. This later became the basis of international law.
Finally, this gives us a way to discuss issues not explicitly mentioned in the Bible, such as nuclear weapons or cloning. Sola Scriptura doesn’t help here. Roman Catholics, drawing on Aquinas’ tradition, use reason and the natural law to discuss these topics. The author uses environmental issues as an example. Yes, animals serve a purpose as food, and it’s okay to hunt for that purpose – but not for sport. Destroying an animal’s habitat so that it cannot pursue its role in God’s plan is morally wrong as well. Instead, it is our job to protect and even encourage them to be able to pursue their role in creation. (Scott note: This is what stewardship of creation really means) Aquinas did not address this, but his framework of the natural law is flexible enough to be used for these types of issues.
This applies to human rights as well. It is the natural law, not written laws (the positive law), that Jefferson referred to in the Declaration of Independence when he wrote, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” Other moral documents such as UN Declaration of Human Rights, the Nuremburg War-Crimes Codes, and the Geneva Convention, are also based on the natural law.
Chapter 6: The Ins and Outs of Sex
Aquinas’ views on sexuality are very influential even today – and this despite the fact that he was a lifelong celibate.
He starts, as above, by asking what is the ultimate end of sex? In addition to procreation, Aquinas identifies two other essential purposes: To strengthen the marriage bond, and for pleasure. He noted that man and woman seem to be designed to “fit” together physically, as well. This was surely not an accident, he reasoned, but instead meant that it must be part of the essence of sex.
Augustine, writing earlier, had stated that before the Fall, sex was a purely rational act that brought no pleasure and was just matter of fact. Due to original sin, passion and pleasure were introduced and sex became an act of self-love, because one did it for pleasure. Sex is then the way original sin was passed from generation to generation – and this is why Jesus was born of a virgin (no semen involved).
Aquinas disagreed. To not take pleasure, to him, was a sin, and is part of God’s plan for sex. He wrote, “The exceeding pleasure experienced in the sex act, so long as it is in harmony with reason, does not destroy the balance of virtue.” Note, however, that the other purposes of sex must be satisfied – procreation and unity with one’s spouse. These three purposes form the basis of Catholic belief and many other Christians’ beliefs as well.
So, per Aquinas, anytime we deviate from one of these three ends of sex, we have sinned. The seriousness of the sin depends on how far we have deviated from those ends. The ends are ranked by Aquinas thus:
First, the “sins against right reason”: Fornication is the least serious sexual sin. His reasoning: Pleasure and conception are both possible, but it doesn’t strengthen the marital bond since they are not married. Adultery is next; it too allows pleasure and could result in conception, but it is worse than fornication in that it damages a marital bond. Rape is worse; while it allows for conception it does not strengthen a marital bond and it does not allow for pleasure for at least one partner (note that it also commits the sin of violence).
Worse than these are the “sins against nature,” namely masturbation, sodomy, and homosexuality. Masturbation is the least severe of these three – It cannot produce offspring, and it does not strengthen a marital bond, but at least it allows for pleasure. (Note that though this is considered to be a more serious sexual sin than rape, rape is the worse sin because of the sin of violence it includes). This, also, is why Catholics consider masturbation to be such a serious sin. Because masturbation is needed for artificial insemination, Catholics are often opposed to that as well. Cloning will be a case that will affect this belief, most likely.
Sodomy is the next worst – and not just for homosexuals, but for a man with a woman as well. This is because it involves two people (not just one, like masturbation) both avoiding conception. Also, Aquinas found it questionable whether or not it strengthened the marital bond. Birth control is also considered a sin by the Catholic church because it deliberately avoids conception, one of the three Divine ends of sex. Naturally, this is a huge reason Catholics condemn homosexuality – not only because conception in not possible, but (until recently) it didn’t strengthen a marital bond because gays couldn’t marry.
Recently, though, people have used Aquinas to defend homosexuality. Robert Wood: if homosexuality is genetic, then wouldn’t that mean it was part of God’s plan and therefore natural? Wood argues that it may have been a built-in form of population control.
The fact that they cannot conceive is another reason, though, and this is also a challenge – can couples no longer able to conceive have sex? They cannot meet one of the basic purposes (conception), so should they abstain?
In the 1930s, Pope Pius ruled that these couples could have sex – they can have a pro-creative intent and hope for a miracle. As long as they want to have children, they have met the pro-creative intent. So, Renick asks, can the same not apply to homosexuals? Can they hope for a miracle too, and thus meet the intent and not sin?
Pope Paul, in Humanae Vitae, 1968, stated that the rhythm method was allowed to be used – and thus a procreative intent is not always necessary in every sexual act in marriage (they are using a natural method of birth control rather than a man-made form of it). This ruling is, of course, still controversial.
So, Aquinas’ arguments continue to be influential here as well. Beyond the Bible, the laws of nature apply to sex, and thus should be obeyed.
So, last time I covered Chapters 1 and 2 of the book Aquinas for Armchair Theologians. Today I’m going to look at Chapters 3 and 4, which tackles some big subjects – evil, free will, and metaphysics. Keep in mind that this post is an overview of a book that’s an overview itself on Aquinas’ thought!
Chapter 3: Why Is There Evil? Do Humans Have Free Will?
Why is there evil in the world?
To Aquinas, who of course accepted the Bible as true, the answer was obvious – the devil. Aquinas wanted to show that this was also reasonable. If God is all-powerful, and knows that suffering is going to be caused by the devil, why doesn’t God just eliminate the devil and save us all that suffering? Doesn’t this undermine either his goodness or whether He is all-powerful? Why did God create evil in the first place?
For his answers, Aquinas draws on Plato and Augustine. First, God didn’t create evil – evil is “a privation of the good”, or when some of the good is removed from something. The author uses the example of the aging of a flower. As it dies, nothing bad is added, it just loses some of the good stuff it had. So evil itself is not a “thing”, it’s just removing the good and this is what all of what we call evil really is. This means that God did not create evil as part of creation and thus is not the source of evil.
The Manicheans held that the devil and God were equal co-creators, but Aquinas rejected this and said evil was not created – it is just when some of the good dissipates. This applies to humans as well, when they do evil. Some of their good has gone. The same applies to the fallen angels.
This leaves the question, though, of who or what removes the good? Aquinas struggles with the answer. He notes that God made the world so it was not perfect and immutable, or it would have just been God, which makes no sense. So decay was built in – but this means God created a world that would inevitably be evil, so we’re back where we started, with God as the cause of evil. So Aquinas admits this, and turns to the task of proving that although “God is the cause of everything that happens, He is not morally responsible for the evil acts of humans and (fallen) angels.”
This brings us to the argument of…whether or not we have free will.
There are thinkers that believe we do not: “Assume…that God exists and that He is all-knowing (or omniscient), knowing perfectly everything that happens even before it happens.” For example, when you were born. “Medieval thinkers began to wonder if there could be true human free choice in the face of a God who possessed such omniscience.” Could you stop doing whatever you’re doing if God already knew you weren’t going to stop doing it? Both Luther and Calvin thought there was no free will – in Calvin’s case, see predestination, and Luther wrote,
“For if we believe it to be true that God foreknows and foreordains all things; that He cannot be deceived or obstructed in His foreknowledge…and that nothing happens but at His will (which reason is compelled to grant); then on reason’s own testimony, there can be no free will in man, or angel, or in any creature.”
Aquinas, however, believed that we had to have free will. How could God be just if He predestined some creatures to damnation for stuff they didn’t do of their own free will, but stuff they did because God willed it. So Aquinas argued against this and for free will.
First, Aquinas argued that God is timeless. Since He is outside of time, God sees everything all at once, and before and after have no meaning. Therefore, he doesn’t “know” beforehand that you’re going to do something since He knows the past, present and future all at once. Aquinas’ critics says this is avoiding the issue, since even if God is outside of time, we are in it. and the question is whether we, not God, have free will.
Aquinas has a second argument. God, he explains, has two types of will: necessary, and contingent. When God wills something necessarily, it will happen, period. For example, Let there be light, and there was light. The example the author uses is that of (anthropomorphizing) God rolling a pair of dice in a game. God could will necessarily and the dice would roll the number He needed – but what fun is that? Instead, God could will that He will win, contingent on the dice rolling naturally. If God cannot roll the dice this way – the way we all do – then we are saying there is something an omnipotent God cannot do, which is a contradiction.
So, perhaps the same is true about you. God wills certain things in your life to happen necessarily – that you’ll be born, where you will be born, and so on – and other things to happen contingently – that you’ll develop to your greatest potential, that you’ll choose to be good instead of bad, or more importantly, that you’ll believe in Jesus and accept salvation. But he wills this contingently, not necessarily – you have the freedom to choose. He wants it to happen, but does not force it to happen.
So, God did create the devil, which allowed the devil to choose to be bad, but God didn’t make him be bad – he chose to be bad even though this isn’t what God wanted. God is not at fault for the evil the devil did – He willed contingently that the devil would use his free will to choose to serve God as an angel of light, but God did not will this necessarily, leaving the devil no choice but to serve God.
Renick notes that these are some of Aquinas’ more difficult concepts and even professional philosophers struggle with the arguments at times. But it demonstrates that concepts that seem simple like God being all-powerful or us having free will can quickly become quite complex. These arguments that Aquinas makes are still the response of many Christians today, such is his influences. But it is not just on Christians – his use of reason to test beliefs has become the standard for everyone in the western tradition.
Chapter 4: Metaphysics 101: Or Why We Are What We Are
Metaphysics “is the study of which is after or beyond the physical realm,” which Aquinas defined as “the science of being.” He investigates what he calls the essence of a thing, what makes it what it is. A triangle, for instance can be red, green, big, small, whatever. But it must always have three sides, or it’s not a triangle. The former are “accidental” attributes; three-sidedness is an “essential” attribute. This is a simple example; far more complex is asking what is the essence of God or angels or even human beings. What are the essential characteristics as opposed to the accidental characteristics of each?
Aquinas has defined, so far in this book, God as immutable, omnipotent, omniscient, and all-good. Being evil, he has also said, is NOT part of being human or angel. Evil, therefore, is an accidental attribute of humans and angels and not part of creation. This does not mean that God made a mistake, oops, by accident and created evil – evil exists, but it is not what makes us human, what makes the creation what it is, or what makes God who He is.
So what are the essential characteristics of humans, creation, and so on? Aquinas “argues that one crucial way of establishing the nature of an object is to determine its end or goal.” For example, the end of a pilot is to fly a plane, and the goal of a baker is to make bread. Aquinas says that the end goal of everything in creation is to seek God. Trees reach toward heaven, rocks provide shelter for ants, deer provide food for predators, and so on, all of which serve God’s plan for creation. All the creation and animals serve God by “necessity”, by instinct. Humans, however, are different – we have the choice of serving God or not (Free will, again). Aquinas states that we “only fulfill our nature when we seek and serve God,” but we are unique in our ability to not choose to do so. But when we deny our nature this way, we do not find happiness and fulfillment. We can certainly choose to not pursue God and the good, but we should, because this is our ultimate end, our goal, and it is built into the essence of our nature.
I note that Ecclesiastes 12:13 says this also –
Now all has been heard;here is the conclusion of the matter:Fear God and keep his commandments,
for this is the duty of all mankind.
Source: Aquinas for Armchair Theologians, Timothy M. Renick, Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, KY 2002
In my quest to learn theology, I’ve found that you need to have an understanding of the writings of those who have gone before you. This is a daunting task, as anyone who has seen Barth or Tillich‘s Systematic Theology tomes. I discovered, to my delight, a series of books called The Armchair Theologian. These summarize the views of many of the most important theologians of the past, such as Barth, Wesley, and Augustine. They are not free from bias; of course every author brings his or her bias to what the write and the various authors that wrote these summaries are no exception. Also, these are introductions and overviews; they are not by any means complete descriptions of the various theologians beliefs and works! For that, you should always go to the original source. But these are good beginner’s surveys.
Today I’d like to start by looking at Thomas Aquinas. Let’s jump right in; you can find the book information at the end of the post!
Chapter 1: Beginnings
In Chapter 1: Beginnings, Renick begins by noting that Aquinas’ “theory of natural law shaped our modern concept of human rights. His views of the state supplied the model for Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence.” He is the one who came up with the concepts of Jus in bello and Jus ad bellum, and he is the one who came up with many of the most well-known proofs of the existence of God. Aquinas’ thinking was in reaction to the new universities springing up and the Muslim ideas being brought back by the crusaders. He wanted to show that “the truths of the Bible and the truths of Christianity could be shown to have a rational basis” and used reason to prove it.
Aquinas was born around 1225 in Aquino, between Rome and Naples. He was the youngest of seven sons, and was sent to the Benedictines at 5 yrs old; despite this, he liked it. He studied Aristotle at the University of Naples at 14 (including Politics, ethics, and Metaphysics). Note that Aristotle was considered dangerous because his books conflicted with Church teachings. After University, Thomas joined the Dominicans and took a vow of poverty, which didn’t sit well with his family. Two of his brothers tried to talk him out of it, supposedly hiring a prostitute who tried to seduce Thomas. Instead he fended her off with a fireplace poker, drew a cross on the wall, and begged God to grant him constant virginity, which appears to have happened. Bernard Gui, Thomas’ biographer, wrote “From that time onwards, it was his custom to avoid the sight and company of women – except in case of necessity or utility – as a man avoids snakes.” Despite this his writings on sex have been influential. Also, he was apparently a chubby fellow and had a good memory.
Summa Theologica is over two million words. The eidetic and eclectic Aquinas integrated the Bible, Aristotle (“The Philosopher”), Augustine, Jerome, Maimonides, Averroes, Avicenna, and others into it. He gave sermons, and was a professor at the University of Paris, beginning his lectures at 6:00 AM – amazingly, they were well-attended. He died in 1274, the Summa unfinished.
Thomism was condemned 3 years later as it used Aristotle who was considered to be heretical. This was done by the Archbishop of Paris and the Archbishop of Canterbury. But since the pagans and Jews did not accept the Bible as true, one had to appeal to reason, and so his ideas became needed to defend the faith. In 1323, a few years after the lifting of the ban, the Church initiated the process of making Thomas a saint. The poker incident was one of two miracles needed for sainthood; the other was the fact that on his deathbed, he asked for herring, although it wasn’t the season for them, and it just so happened that a fishing boat came in that day with…a herring.
Chapter 2: Humans, Angels, and God
Reason needs faith – not everything can be proved by reason alone, such as the Trinity. These things must be revealed.
Faith needs reason – Aquinas felt that “human beings are unique, somewhat like the animals and somewhat like the angels but identical to neither.” Animals learn things using their senses, but angels can’t because they don’t have physical bodies. So, they learn using their “intellect,” which Aquinas defines as “the ability to know truths intuitively, to experience things…on a direct intellectual level,” in much the same way that we “know” we are in love. The angels thus know metaphysical truths and can know and experience God in a way that a dog cannot.
Humans, thus, can do both. Morals cannot be empirically established, but are “known” metaphysically. However, since we are both physical and intellectual, we are not as good as the angels at knowing things purely intellectually. Our physical senses can confuse us. But, since God made us with both types of senses, we should use both types of senses to understand the cosmos and know God. This includes using your reason and intellect but also your physical senses (one reason that depending only on faith healing is wrong). “Science and medicine are a testimony, not a threat, to God’s design.”
“…Aquinas writes, ‘It is impossible for items that belong to reason to be contrary to those that pertain to faith.” If the belief is ‘true’, then faith has nothing to fear of it. If the belief is false, then it cannot be a dictate of reason.”
Aquinas had five proofs of God’s existence, often called the “Five Ways” and that present the same argument five parallel ways. The first is the argument from motion. Empirically: Things move. Whatever is moved must be moved by another. So, something must have started the movement, and this is the “First Mover“. This, Aquinas says, is God (although this does not prove the existence of the Christian God). Immanuel Kant says, however – what moved the First Mover? If you don’t need anything, then why do you need a first mover?
Several other philosophers such as Etienne Gilson have rebutted Kant. Today, science relegates the role to nature as the first mover, but, the question remains, “How does ‘nature’ in this sense differ from the “God” of the religious believer? What do we mean by “God” other than, in the first instance, that force which generated the cosmos?…who or what caused the Big Bang? Where did the matter that exploded come from in the first place?”
Aquinas also felt that reason could tell us some things about God’s nature. He said that God is immutable (unchangeable) in every way. His reasoning was that if God had changed it would be for better or worse. “If God is perfect, he could not have changed for the better or he would not have been perfect. He could not have changed for the worse, or He would not now be perfect.” The author notes that this does not take into account a morally neutral change. This belief, that God doesn’t change at all, is still strongly held today by most Christians.
So, since “God is the author of a reasonable universe…what we know and say about [Him] should be reasonable” as well.
Source: Aquinas for Armchair Theologians, Timothy M. Renick, Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, KY 2002
I’m a little late on this one – Usually I put it up in January, but never late than never!
It seems like I read less this year than in previous years, but a lot of what I was doing was working through coding exercises. Also, we moved in the middle of the year, and a whole lot of bad stuff happened too. At one point I was working two jobs. So, life happening plus less time to read combined with working through coding textbooks meant this year was anemic when it came to books. Still, I hope you find some value in the list below. There are books on history, international affairs, religion, mathematics, epidemiology, and of course, many fiction books.
Recently my pastor said that I knew quite a bit about theology, and commented on how, unlike a lot of people, I read theology for fun and not because I have to.
Well, not quite. And I certainly don’t consider myself knowledgeable.
Most of the reading I have done over the years was popular books, the so-called “Christian Life” genre. I’ve “dabbled” in real theology over the years – eight months in a seminary that I disagreed vehemently with, but was totally unprepared to debate with, and some Augustine or Lewis here and there, maybe a little of others. I’ve dipped my toes in the Arminian vs. Calvinist debate. I suppose that MIGHT make me more knowledgeable than the average churchgoer. But put me against most seminary graduates or a determined atheist, and I’ve a feeling I’d come out the worse for wear.
I have learned the importance, recently, of apologetics and was surprised to learn that it was a subcategory of theology. I have been reading about Aquinas and Francis and Wesley. But I’ve yet to delve deeply into, say, Barth or Knox, to name two examples of noted theologians.
So what? Why is it important? Maybe you think God isn’t real, or maybe you’re a Christian that believes we should spend more time serving the Church or just doing what the Bible says.
Well, I guess for me, it’s important for several reasons.
First, the Bible tells me so in 1 Peter 3:15 (NIV):
15 But in your hearts revere Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect…
So I need to be able to defend my faith, to atheists, and to those that believe differently in the Christian tradition.
Second, for my own betterment. I realized at the end of 2013 that my theology was inconsistent, and incomplete, and needed more. I am not good at loving others. I believe in justice, but not in being a social justice warrior. I oppose communism, but am wary of capitalism. The whole human sexuality debate that is causing a schism in my denomination. And yet there are Christians that will argue both sides of those issues and insist that their’s is the right view.
Third is the Calvinist vs. Arminian debate. Can we lose our salvation? Have I already blown it? Are the Calvinists right about predestination? What about free will?
Fourth, and most important to me, is the fact that my view of God tends more towards Jonathan Edwards‘ Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God than the loving God who sent His Son to die for our sins and give us eternal life. This affects my every day life in unbelievable ways. I want to know if this other God is valid theologically, if I can trust Him and get to know Him, and know His joy and the “peace which passeth all understanding.”
These are the reasons I study theology. I believe in the basic beliefs of Christianity, but I am hungry to learn more. And to grow and deepen in my faith. After all, as Paul wrote in 1 Corinthians 3:
Brothers and sisters, I could not address you as people who live by the Spirit but as people who are still worldly—mere infants in Christ. 2 I gave you milk, not solid food, for you were not yet ready for it. Indeed, you are still not ready.3 You are still worldly.
I don’t want to be a mere infant. I want to grow up.
Another year, another book list. I read less book this year than last, but over two thousand more pages! Here’s the list:
78.) Out of the Mountains: The Coming Age of the Urban Guerrilla – David Kilcullen
In a recent Twitter conversation with Justin Pickard, I referred to myself as a “conservative futurist.” He said he would be interested in what that means and I promised to write a blog post about it. This is my attempt to do so.
Looking back over my social media profiles (Facebook, Twitter, blog) you can see that I am a Christian, and nominally a libertarian. Those two alone put me at odds with many of the futurists I read, and especially with many Transhumanists who seem to believe that anyone who believes in God is opposed to them and trying to hold back humanity.
That’s not a debate I want to get into because it’s too polarized and neither side is going to change its mind no matter how well the other side argues. Instead, I want to touch on a few issues that commonly come up in Futurist conversations and describe where I might be positioned on them.
First, and probably most controversial, I am a global warming skeptic. Note that I did NOT say denier, which is a derogatory term used by those who are convinced. Does global climate change happen? Absolutely, and in cycles through time. Are we causing global warming? I’m not so sure. I’ve seen evidence that contradicts it, and seen good arguments against it. Enough so that I’m not convinced. It will be interesting to see if many of the scenarios used for planning that assume global warming will be useful after all.
Second is artificial intelligence. Ray Kurzweil (link to Kurzweil) and others believe that within forty years we’ll have created computers that will be super-smart and capable of thinking – that will, for all intents and purposes, be alive. I am, again, skeptical. First, I think it’s a long way from creating a computer program that evolves to one that can think for itself. Even Watson cannot do much without tweaking it’s program – which is done by human programmers, not by itself. Second, (oops, here come my religious beliefs) I don’t believe that it’s alive unless it has a soul. Does this mean I think all research should stop? Of course not – the smarter we can make them, the more help they’ll be. I just don’t believe that any computer (or robot) will ever be truly alive.
Third is life extension. I’ve read quite a bit on this, (links to books) and pay special attention to the blog of Sonia Arrison. I’ll be honest though: I believe that there’s a limit set in the Bible for us. As a matter of fact, a recent article notes an average of 114 years. I believe we can extend the healthy part of our lives up until then, but remain unconvinced that we can extend it much beyond that – and I don’t believe immortality is a possibility in any way, including “uploading.” Especially at our current state of technology, but even beyond, I don’t think we’ll ever be able to use a silicon-based matrix to represent the human brain. (I would love to be proven wrong, of course!)
That’s just several areas where my beliefs affect my view of the future. What about you? Do you lean more toward a transhumanist view of the future or more towards a “conservative” view of the future? If you believe in some sort of supernatural diety, how does that affect your view?
I read quite a bit last year, with an emphasis on linguistics, Counterinsurgency, complexity, and mathematics. Fiction, as always was scattered throughout the year. Lots of good links below; I encourage you to check them out, along with the reviews I did of several of them…
1) Your Child’s Growing Mind: A Guide to Learning and Brain Development from Birth to Adolescence – Jane M. Healey, Ph.D
2) Simplexity: Why Simple Things Become Complex (and How Complex Things Can Be Made Simple) – Jeffrey Kluger
3) The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe – C.S. Lewis
4) A New Kind of Science – Stephen Wolfram
5) Monsoon: The Indian Ocean and the Future of American Power – Robert D. Kaplan
6) The Great Reset: How New Ways of Living and Working Drive Post-Crash Prosperity – Richard Florida (My review here)
7) Language: The Big Picture – Peter Sharpe (my review here)
8) Understanding Physics: Volume 1: Motion, Sound, and Heat (Understanding Physics) – Isaac Asimov
9) Seven Firefights in Vietnam – John A. Cash, et al. (My review here)
10) Through the Language Glass: Why the World Looks Different in Other Languages – Guy Deutscher (My review here)
11) Chaos Theory Tamed – Garnett P. Williams
12) Deep Simplicity: Bringing Order to Chaos and Complexity – John Gribbin (My review here)
13) The Defense of Jisr al-Doreaa: With E. D. Swinton’s “The Defence of Duffer’s Drift” – Michael Burgoyne and Albert Marckwardt (My review here)
14) The Age of the Unthinkable , Why the New World Disorder Constantly Surprises Us and What We Can Do About It – Joshua Cooper Ramo
15) The Quiet American (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition) – Graham Greene
16) Muqtada: Muqtada al-Sadr, the Shia Revival, and the Struggle for Iraq – Patrick Cockburn
17) Rock, Paper, Scissors: Game Theory in Everyday Life – Len Fisher
18) Inventing English: A Portable History of the Language – Seth Lerer (My review here)
19) Migration: Species Imperative #2 – Julie Czerneda
20) Euler’s Gem: The Polyhedron Formula and the Birth of Topology – David S. Richeson
21) Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means – Albert-Laszlo Barabasi (My review here)
22) Chicago Blues – Edited by Libby Fischer Hellmann
23) Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us – Dan Pink
24) The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently…and Why – Richard E. Nisbett
25) Pink Boots and a Machete: My Journey From NFL Cheerleader to National Geographic Explorer – Mireya Mayor (My review here)
26) A Cook’s Tour: Global Adventures in Extreme Cuisines – Anthony Bourdain
27) Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World – Liaquat Ahamed (My review here)
28) Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe’s Hidden Dimensions – Lisa Randall
29) The Mother Tongue – English And How It Got That Way – Bill Bryson
30) Raising Musical Kids: A Guide for Parents – Robert A. Cutietta
31) Thought Contagion – Aaron Lynch (My review here)
32) Prince Caspian (Chronicles of Narnia 2) – C.S. Lewis
33) Memories of My Melancholy Whores – Gabriel Garcia Marquez
34) Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age (Open Market Edition) – Duncan J. Watts
35) The Unfolding of Language: An Evolutionary Tour of Mankind’s Greatest Invention – Guy Deutscher
36) Hardwired – Walter Jon Williams
37) The Next Decade: Where We’ve Been . . . and Where We’re Going – George Friedman
38) Almost Human: Making Robots Think – Lee Gutkind
39) Understanding Physics: Volume 2: Light, Magnetism and Electricity – Isaac Asimov
40) Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (Collins Business Essentials) – Robert B. Cialdini
41) Bursts: The Hidden Pattern Behind Everything We Do – Albert-Laszlo Barabasi
42) The Secret Servant (Gabriel Allon) – Daniel Silva
43) Pittsburgh Noir (Akashic Noir) – Edited by Kathleen George
44) Freedom (TM) – Daniel Suarez
45) Absolute Beginner’s Guide to Building Robots – Gareth Branwyn
46) The Traveler (Fourth Realm Trilogy, Book 1) – John Twelve Hawks
47) Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back – Douglas Rushkoff
48) Running Out of Water: The Looming Crisis and Solutions to Conserve Our Most Precious Resource – Peter Rogers and Susan Leal
49) Monk Habits for Everyday People: Benedictine Spirituality for Protestants – Dennis Okholm
50) Counterinsurgency – David Kilcullen
51) Hunter’s Run – George R. R. Martin, Gardner Dozois, Daniel Abraham
52) The Killing Ground (Sean Dillon) – Jack Higgins
53) One Shot (Jack Reacher, No. 9) – Lee Child
54) The Hard Way (Jack Reacher, No. 10) – Lee Child
55) Why Things Break: Understanding the World By the Way It Comes Apart – Mark E. Eberhart
56) Earth Strike: Star Carrier: Book One – Ian Douglas
57) Mediterranean Winter: The Pleasures of History and Landscape in Tunisia, Sicily, Dalmatia, and the Peloponnese – Robert D. Kaplan
58) The Post-American World: Release 2.0 – Fareed Zakaria
59) Farm City: The Education of an Urban Farmer – Novella Carpenter
60) The Fall of Rome: And the End of Civilization – Bryan Ward-Perkins
61) The Sling and the Stone: On War in the 21st Century – Thomas X. Hammes
62) Four Colors Suffice: How the Map Problem Was Solved – Robin Wilson
63) How to Build Your Own Spaceship: The Science of Personal Space Travel – Piers Bizony
64) The X in Sex: How the X Chromosome Controls Our Lives – David Bainbridge
65) The Art of the Long View: Planning for the Future in an Uncertain World – Peter Schwartz
66) The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalized Medicine – Francis S. Collins
67) The Scar – China Mieville
68) The Profession: A Thriller – Steven Pressfield (My review here)
69) Symmetry: A Journey into the Patterns of Nature – Marcus du Sautoy
70) The Five Chinese Brothers (Paperstar) – Claire Hutchet Bishop and Kurt Wiese
71) Griftopia: Bubble Machines, Vampire Squids, and the Long Con That Is Breaking America – Matt Taibbi
72) How to Talk to Your Child About Sex: It’s Best to Start Early, but It’s Never Too Late — A Step-by-Step Guide for Parents – Linda and Richard Eyre
73) The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris – David McCullough
74) Havoc – Jack DuBrul
75) Sundiver (The Uplift Saga, Book 1) – David Brin
76) Iraq and the Evolution of American Strategy – Steven Metz
77) The Rest of the Robots – Isaac Asimov
78) Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things – William McDonough and Michael Braungart
79) 7th Sigma – Steven Gould
80) 50 Mathematical Ideas You Really Need to Know – Tony Crilly
81) The Future of Work: How the New Order of Business Will Shape Your Organization, Your Management Style and Your Life – Thomas W. Malone
82) Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier – Edward Glaeser
83) Free Agent Nation: The Future of Working for Yourself – Dan Pink
84) The Future of Management – Gary Hamel with Bill Breen
85) 100 Plus: How the Coming Age of Longevity Will Change Everything, From Careers and Relationships to Family and Faith – Sonia Arrison
86) The Riemann Hypothesis: The Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics – Karl Sabbagh
87) Everything and More: A Compact History of Infinity (Great Discoveries) – David Foster Wallace
88) The Final Warning (Maximum Ride, Book 4) – James Patterson
89) Re-read Where Eagles Dare – Alistair MacLean
90) The Caryatids – Bruce Sterling
91) Long for This World: The Strange Science of Immortality – Jonathan Weiner
92) Mathematical Mysteries: The Beauty and Magic of Numbers (Helix Books) – Calvin C. Clawson
93) The Mystery of the Aleph: Mathematics, the Kabbalah, and the Search for Infinity – Amir D. Aczel
94) Spousonomics: Using Economics to Master Love, Marriage, and Dirty Dishes – Paula Szuchman and Jenny Anderson
95) Reamde: A Novel – Neal Stephenson
96) The Poincare Conjecture: In Search of the Shape of the Universe – Donal O’Shea
97) Euclid’s Window : The Story of Geometry from Parallel Lines to Hyperspace – Leonard Mlodinow
98) Millennium Problems – Keith Devlin
99) The Hunger Games – Suzanne Collins
100) Godel’s Proof (Revised Edition) – Ernest Nagel and James R. Newman
101) Moscow Rules (Gabriel Allon #8) – Daniel Silva
102) The Bourne Legacy – Eric van Lustbader
103) Beautiful Outlaw: Experiencing the Playful, Disruptive, Extravagant Personality of Jesus – John Eldredge
104) Count Down: The Race for Beautiful Solutions at the International Mathematical Olympiad – Steve Olson
105) The Crowded Universe: The Search for Living Planets – Alan Boss